Basic Individual Skills

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2nd Lt McHellsten
Second Lieutenant
Second Lieutenant
Posts: 327
Joined: Thu Dec 21, 2017 12:50 am

Basic Individual Skills

Post by 2nd Lt McHellsten » Wed Oct 10, 2018 1:55 am

Individual React to Contact
Upon contact with the enemy there are many things you and your element can do. Every situation is different. But here follows an example of the standard reaction to hard contact.
You as a rifle squad member will be expected to act without supervision during the first 10 seconds of the engagement unless your team leader gives you other direction.
  1. Immediately drop to a prone position and seek nearest cover.
  2. The first person to localise the enemy calls out a contact report with this template:
    1. Alert (Contact/Civilian/Friendly)
    2. Bearing (Compass direction or direction relative to the direction of movement.)
    3. Classification (Rifleman/Machine Gunner/Team/Squad)
    4. Distance (50 meters)
  3. Answer the enemy fire with Intense Fire and maintain that through two clips. Thereafter change to Rapid Fire until ordered otherwise.
  4. Listen for orders whether the Squad Leader decides to Assault, Stand firm, or Break contact.

Fire Rates
Rifle
  • Intense - One round every other second (30 rounds/minute) - In order to put maximum suppression on the enemy for a short period of time. Best used at the initiation of the engagement, or for keeping the enemy behind cover while a medic or team crosses a danger area. Also known as "Quick Accurate Fire".
  • Rapid - One round every fourth second (15 rounds/minute) - In order to maintain fire superiority. The standard rate of fire when nothing else is called.
  • Deliberate - One round every fifteenth second (4 rounds/minute) - In order to let the enemy know we are still a threat. If a target appears, disregard your rate and engage it in order to destroy it.
  • A element leader may call for slower of faster rates of fire than the standard ones when the situation calls for it.
“Each Rifleman fires his first shot on that portion of the target corresponding generally to his position in the squad. He then distributes his next shots to the right and left of the first shot, covering that part of the target on which he can deliver accurate fire without having to change position. The portion of the target which one man can cover will depend upon the range and position of the firer. Frequently each man will be able to cover the entire target with accurate fire; this should be done whenever possible. Fire is not limited to points within the target known to contain an enemy; on the contrary, all men space their shots so that no portion of the target remains unhit.” - FM 7-10, Infantry Rifle Company 1944

Automatic Rifle
  • Intense - A burst of 2-3 rounds every fifth second - In order to put maximum suppression on the enemy for a short period of time. Best used at the initiation of the engagement, or for keeping the enemy behind cover while a medic or team crosses a danger area.
  • Rapid - A burst of 5-7 rounds every other second - In order to maintain fire superiority. The standard rate of fire when nothing else is called.
  • Deliberate - During Deliberate Fire, the Automatic Rifle ceases fire and only fires at targets appearing.
“From a position best suited to provide support, the Automatic Rifleman distributes his fire over the entire target, or any target which will best support the advance of other members in the squad.
This method of fire distribution is employed without command.”
- FM 7-10, Infantry Rifle Company 1944

Machine Gun
  • Rapid - A burst of 10-13 rounds every two to three seconds - In order to put maximum suppression on the enemy for a short period of time. Best used at the initiation of the engagement, or for keeping the enemy behind cover while a medic or team crosses a danger area.
  • Sustained - A burst of 6-9 rounds every four to five seconds - In order to maintain fire superiority. The standard rate of fire when nothing else is called.
  • Deliberate - During Deliberate Fire, the Machine Gun ceases fire and only fires at targets appearing.

7 Ss of Concealment
  1. Shape
    The human form with a rifle is one of the easiest things to recognize. We naturally see things as human like even when they are not. It is how we as humans perceive the world, so we must break up this very obvious shape. To start with you have your camouflage with their displacement patterned material. This uses lines to break up the flat surface of the body, though it is still very flat. Always match the camouflage on you to that of your surroundings. There is no use wearing a OCP camo pattern if you’re going into an open street as you will silhouette yourself.
  2. Shine
    Something that people tend to forget in combat is that things shine and reflect light. To the keen observer that is all they need to spot someone hidden in the bushes. The most obvious reflective pieces of yourself are your face and rifle. It is extremely easy to break up the shape of the face and remove its reflective shine with face paint.
  3. Shadow
    An important and easy way to remain undetected is to use shadows. You are more likely to remain hidden if people cannot make out what you are. Look where the light is coming from, use it to hide you. Use it to find people, as many hide yet forget to look if they are casting a shadow. Shadows can be helpful as well as unhelpful. Try to keep low to cast as little a shadow as possible, use other shadows to mask your own, and always remember to look carefully at shadows, as you might be able to spot enemies by using his own shadow against him.
  4. Silhouette
    Silhouetting is a big problem it seems in combat. People forget that their background is never the same, sometimes dark and sometimes light. Note skylining. You will stand out a mile and put all your camouflage to waste if you break cover, as would using the wrong type of camouflage in that particular area. Make sure that you try and match your surroundings as best you can, don't break the skyline, if possible use defilades as best you can.
  5. Sound
    Movement makes a lot of noise, and noise is fairly easy to trace. If you can silence something do so. When moving, you unavoidably make noise. Move slower; look where you’re putting your feet. You might not be directly making noise or movement, though the sudden swaying of undergrowth usually means that there is someone there. Listen out for movement, twigs snapping, and the knock of something hard against a tree or other object, voices, the sound of gunfire. Sound is one of the easiest ways to be detected and to detect others. It also can help you tell who is who. A machine gunner is distinguishable because you can hear the rapid burst fire, while a sniper fires accurate shots with long intervals. Once you know what the enemy is using you can figure out his tactics.
  6. Speed
    Speed is the key of combat. But that doesn’t mean that you should run recklessly into fire and hope for the best. Closing up on an enemy might be done in snail speed crawling through dense terrain, or rushing across a field with mortars and machine guns firing above your head.

    If you are trying to be sneaky, don’t do quick movements. Quick movements attract more attention from the eyes of an observer. Slow movements are harder to spot. Your speed varies with terrain. You should of course not expose yourself longer than needed in a doorway or breach in a hedgeline.
  7. Surroundings
    Surroundings include your local environment and the local wildlife you are trying not to disturb. Frantically moving grass or bushes indicates to the knowable that there is generally a person near underneath or next to it, making location far easier. You therefore have to think about how you are affecting the ground you’re moving through, and the ground you have moved in to set up a defense position. Use natural disturbances to move things, to try to move them as little as possible.
Before moving to a position think through these steps. Will it make a lot of noise, will it create a path that is easy to follow, and will its movement alert others to your presence? You need to choose your path with all this in mind, though keep in mind where blind spots are and time constraints. Don’t choose the most obvious area to position yourself in. Choose your location taking into account what is out there. If it’s the biggest and most obvious piece of ground to use, then the opposition will already be thinking there will be someone there and deal with it appropriately.
With regards to wildlife, if you disturb it, it will react to you, animals react to people in different ways, sheep move away from you as a flock, dogs may come up to you as do horses. Birds fly away from people as well. All these are tell tale signs that can give your position away, but they are very helpful to spot the opposition.


Handsignals
  1. Ctrl + Numpad 1 = You will have to bind this on your own. “Cease Fire” is recommended.
  2. Ctrl + Numpad 2 = Freeze
  3. Ctrl + Numpad 3 = Cover
  4. Ctrl + Numpad 4 = Move forward
  5. Ctrl + Numpad 5 = Rally up
  6. Ctrl + Numpad 6 = Engage
  7. Ctrl + Numpad 7 = Point
  8. Ctrl + Numpad 8 = Hold
  9. Ctrl + Numpad 9 = Warning
You can bind the handsignals to whatever key you want by going into configure > controls > addon options > ACE gestures

2nd Lt McHellsten
Second Lieutenant
Second Lieutenant
Posts: 327
Joined: Thu Dec 21, 2017 12:50 am

Re: Basic Individual Skills

Post by 2nd Lt McHellsten » Sun Oct 14, 2018 7:35 pm

Weapon Safety
  • Never cover anything with the muzzle of the weapons that you do not intend to destroy.
    At all times handle the weapon as if it was loaded.
  • Safety On.
    Keep safety on until you are in direct action.
  • Weapons will be loaded as a squad drill.
    … upon Squad Leader’s order
Weapon Safety Mantra
"I will never load my rifle unless told to.
I will always keep safety on until I am in direct action.
I will always keep my finger off the trigger until my rifle is pointed at the target.
I willl only point my rifle at things I want to destroy.
I am always responsible for my rifle."


One excellent way to prevent negligent discharges (the act of firing your weapon without intending to) is to keep your "trigger finger" off of the "trigger". In gaming terms, this means that you must simply rest the finger you use to fire on your middle mouse button, as opposed to the firing button - this is done when you are not actively engaged in combat.
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Middle Mouse Safety

The failure to do this in the past has resulted in a variety of easily preventable mishaps, ranging from spoiling an ambush to giving away a stealthy approach, as well as several friendly fire incidents.

In the event that you need to alt-tab (switch focus away from Arma and to another program temporarily) for whatever reason, hit your Escape key or bring up your in-game map before doing so. When alt-tabbing back into Arma, a mouse click can be interpreted as a shot. Having your Esc menu up, or your map, will prevent this undesired behavior.

Guidelines to prevent friendly fire
  • Keep your finger off the trigger - Keeping your "firing"' finger rested on your middle mouse button, instead of the fire button, helps to prevent an accidental and potentially fatal shot at the worst possible time
  • Think before you pull the trigger and establish positive identification ("PID") before firing. - Use your head before your rifle. If it doesn't feel right, if something seems "off" or amiss, hold fire. If it looks like a friend, has a friendly weapon, isn't shooting at you, but seems like it's in an enemy area, it may be a friend, and you can't risk taking a shot without being sure.
  • If in doubt, don't fire. - Ask a teammate or your team leader to check out a suspected enemy if necessary. People with optics (such as rifle scopes, binoculars, etc) can be great help in identifying potential enemies.
  • Stay alert as to where friendly forces are located, and communicate your location to others when appropriate.
  • The colors of tracers and the sounds of the weapons being used can help to identify the enemy - Bear in mind that over the course of a mission friendly forces may acquire enemy weapons and thus it becomes less and less accurate as a mission progresses. Also, intelligent enemies may acquire friendly weapons from casualties and use them in the hopes that they will sow confusion amongst their enemies.
Universal Rules of Engagement (ROE)
The most common concept applicable to Arma ROE is dubbed the 'Universal ROE'. This state is in effect unless told otherwise, such as during a special mission briefing or when given a more specific ROE during a mission.

Universal ROE requires a player to understand how the Proximity, Awareness, and Danger of the enemy threat factors into shoot or no-shoot decisions.
  • Proximity - is the distance that an enemy unit is from you. Closer enemies are potentially higher threats, but a close enemy without awareness of you (or other units) does not require immediate engagement.
  • Awareness - is how much information the enemy has about your presence or location. Enemies that are aware of your presence are very high-priority threats, though proximity and danger must be considered as well.
  • Danger - is how much of a threat the enemy is to you or other units. Anti-tank units that are in close proximity and aware of friendly armor are very dangerous and should be engaged promptly. On the other end of the spectrum, an unarmed enemy may be close and aware of friendlies, but unless they have a radio to communicate with their other teammates, they are not a significant danger. However, the presence of a radio and an intent to communicate makes them a potentially dangerous threat.
The guidelines for Universal ROE are as follows:
  • You may always act in the defense of yourself and your teammates - If the enemy is about to engage a friendly, you do not need to ask permission to fire. Act first, save your life or the life of your teammate, then call in a contact report.
  • You may always return fire when fired upon - Identify your targets before engaging them, but do not hesitate to engage when the enemy is engaging you.
  • When time permits, ask for clearance to fire before taking action - This only applies to situations where you and your teammates have the initiative, such as when coming upon enemies that have not yet spotted you. Doing this allows leadership elements to control the initiation of fires more precisely, generally resulting in more effective results. Advance warning also allows other teammates to get better positions before the engagement begins.

2nd Lt McHellsten
Second Lieutenant
Second Lieutenant
Posts: 327
Joined: Thu Dec 21, 2017 12:50 am

Re: Basic Individual Skills

Post by 2nd Lt McHellsten » Sun Oct 14, 2018 8:00 pm

Map Reading
Terrain Features
Terrain features are identified in the same manner on all maps, regardless of the contour interval, but you must realize that a hill in the Rocky Mountains will be much bigger than one in south Florida. You must be able to recognize all the terrain features to locate a point on the ground or to navigate from one point to another.

The five major terrain features are: Hill, Ridge, Valley, Saddle, and Depression.
The three minor terrain features are: Draw, Spur and Cliff.

Terrain features can be learned using the fist or hand to show what each would look like on the ground.
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  • Hill - A point or small area of high ground. When you are on a hilltop, the ground slopes down in all directions.
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  • Ridge - A line of high ground with height variations along its crest. The ridge is not simply a line of hills; all points of the ridge crest are higher than the ground on both sides of the ridge.
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  • Valley - Reasonably level ground bordered on the sides by higher ground. A valley may or may not contain a stream course. A valley generally has maneuver room within its confines. Contour lines indicating a valley are U-shaped and tend to parallel a stream before crossing it. The course of the contour line crossing the stream always points upstream.
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  • Saddle - A dip or low point along the crest of a ridge. A saddle is not necessarily the lower ground between two hilltops; it may be a break along an otherwise level ridge crest.
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  • Depression - A low point or hole in the ground, surrounded on all sides by higher ground.
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Identify Minor Terrain Features
Although these features are not as important as the major terrain features, navigators can plan routes more successfully if they can identify all the terrain features their routes will cross over.
  • Draw - Similar to a valley, except that it normally is a less developed stream course in which there is generally no level ground and, therefore, little or no maneuver room. The ground slopes upward on each side and toward the head of the draw.

    Draws are caused by flash floods and can be found on flat terrain but are more often found along the sides of ridges. Contour lines indicating a draw are shaped like a “V” with the point of the “V” toward the head of the draw (high ground).
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  • Spur - A usually short, continuously sloping line of higher ground, normally jutting out from the side of a ridge. A spur is often formed by two thoroughly parallel streams cutting draws down the side of a ridge
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  • Cliff - A vertical or near-vertical slope. A cliff may be shown on a map by contour lines being close together, touching, or by a ticked “carrying” contour line. The ticks always point toward lower ground.
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Reading a Map
  • Contour Lines - Contour lines are the lines on the map that shows the terrain. Bunched together contour lines means that that terrain is steep, whereas more spread apart contour lines means the terrain is more flat.
  • Height Points - Height Points are dots on the map with numbers on them that signify the height above sea level.
  • Grid Reference (GR) - Grid Reference is the designated term for a specific point on the map. It is made of eastings and northings ( ↑ ↓ - Eastings, ←→ - Northings), put into 4, 6, or 8 digit numbers. The first three in a 6 digit or the first four in an 8 digit represent the eastings, whereas the second three or four digits represent the northings (E.g. GR 103 429 or GR 6785 2456). 8 digit Grid References are most commonly used when plotting courses on a map, or for calling in mortars and artillery.
Reading the compass
The compass is graduated three ways: The first and simplest is via the cardinal North, South, East, and West directions. After that it is graduated in degrees - 0 to 359. This is the inner, larger set of numbers, and should be used when calling out specific target bearings. The final outer set of measurements are known as "Mils", and generally do not have a use aside from communicating with artillery units. In the event that you do ever use mils as a direction call, remember that the numbers need two zeros after them. The "2" marker on the outer ring is actually 200 mils, for example.

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Navigate using your Watch
Note: This only works when the direction of the sun can be located.
Bring up your watch to see what time it is, then look at the sun. If your watch says 3 and it’s still daylight, obviously it means it is the after noon and the sun will be setting West. If it is 9 and it’s still daylight, again obviously it’s the morning and the sun will be rising from the East.

Land Navigation
Land Navigation and Patrols are not just about moving from point A to point B. You need to take into account that there are obstacles and danger areas between the two points.

If you don’t have reference points to go after, e.g in the jungle or in an area with symmetrical hedges all over, you will have to use the bearing on your compass and your watch.

Note that in ArmA 3, your walking speed is 6 km/h and your jogging speed is 12 km/h.
To make it easier we’ll break it down to minutes per 100 meters:
100 meters = 60 seconds in walking speed.
100 meters = 30 seconds in jogging speed.

So how do we get this to work in practice? Simple!
Between point A and point B you will need Waypoints, unless there are clear reference points like curving hills, lakes and houses etc…
Let’s say you want your course to avoid things like villages, walking along roads and open fields.

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This is what a patrol route could look like.

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Naming your Waypoints should be in one subject (in this case it was girls first names). Never use the NATO alphabet when naming Waypoints.
The numbers next to the markers indicate what bearing you should be facing when moving out from the waypoint.

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Your bearing when moving out. 25 degrees.

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In some cases, there are no references to go after. Then you will have to estimate the distance which in this case is about 450 meters.
It takes 10 minutes to walk 1 click.
Split that in two and you’ll have 500 meters and 5 minutes.
Conclusion? It takes about 4 minutes and 30 seconds to walk the distance between Waypoint Ester and Waypoint Frida.

Be aware that time isn’t always consistent. You might have to conduct stamina breaks, listening breaks and detours due to obstacles not marked on the map.

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